43 – P&A Court II: Low vs High Variability in Motor Control & Learning

Should the goal of practice be to reduce movement variability to as low a value as possible? Is high variability the signature of an unskilled performer or a necessity for effective learning?
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A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning
Feedback-Induced Variability and the Learning of Generalized Motor Programs
Optimizing generalized motor program and parameter learning
Variability in baseball pitching biomechanics among various levels of competition
What variability tells us about movement expertise
The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy)
Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis
Regulation of gait in long jumping
Inter-individual variability in the upper–lower limb breaststroke coordination
Differing Roles of Functional Movement Variability as Experience Increases in Gymnastics
The education of attention as explanation of variability of practice effects: learning the final approach phase in a flight simulator


Figure showing three different patterns of movement that could would produce the same overall variability measure.

Figure from Seiffert et al. (2011) showing inter-subject variability in swim strokes

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